The aim of this study was to verify if the harvest index (HI) of common bean is higher in modern lines, to verify if its estimate varies with the cycle of the plant and environmental conditions, and to obtain information concerning its genetic control (through diallel crossing). For this purpose, six lines were crossed in a diallel. Evaluations were carried out in three crop seasons/generations – F2, F3, and F4. A receptacle was used to collect leaves, pods, and other plant parts that fell before harvest. Diallel analysis was performed using Griffing’s method II. It found that the HI was higher in modern lines and was not affected by the cycle; the estimated HI heterosis was negative, indicating the occurrence of dominance in order to reduce trait expression.